Работу выполнили: ученицы 8М класса МОУ СОШ № 21 Маточкина А. С., Маточкина Е. С.
Introduction Chapter I The Architecture of the ancient world The Pyramid of Heops in Giza 2. The Alexandria beacon 3. The Athenian Acropolis 4. The Roman Collosseo Chapter II The Architectural constructions of the present 1. The Architecture of England 2. The French architectural heritage 3. Pisa tower in Italy 4. Tadg-Machal - an informal symbol of India The conclusion
Three greater pyramids of Giza are situated alone in the middle of desert in 8 km from Cairo. They tower above a complex of minor pyramids and tombs surrounding them. The initial height of huge pyramid by Heops (which top was not kept up to us) made 146,6 m. On its construction approximately 2,3 million stone blocks each of which on the average weighed 2,5 tones have been used. Blocks incorporated among themselves without the help of cement, but they have been driven to each other.
The Beacon has been constructed on small island Faros in Mediterranean sea, about coast of Alexandria. This brisk port was founded by Alexander the Great during visiting Egypt. A construction was named like an island. On its construction, should be, 20 years has left, and it has been completed nearby 280 B. C., in days of board PtolemeyII, tsar of Egypt.
After declaration of independence of Greece during restoration works (basically at the end of the XIX centuries) the ancient shape of the Acropolis have been whenever possible restored: all the late buildings in its territory were liquidated, the temple of Nika Apteros was new laid out and others. The item relieves and sculptures of temples of the Acropolis are in the British museum (London), in the Louvre (Paris) and the Museum of the Acropolis. Sculptures remained open-air are replaced by copies now.
The Amphitheater by Flavij (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium) or the Collosseo (Latin: Colosseum) is the biggest of ancient roman amphitheaters and one of the most remarkable constructions in the world. It is in Rome, in a hollow between Ekvilinski, Palatinski and Tselievski hills, on that place where the pond belonged “the Gold House” of Neuron was situated. Long time the Collosseo was the main place of pleasure shows, such, as fights of gladiators, animal persecution, sea battles for inhabitants of Rome and visitors. Nowadays the Collosseo became a symbol of Rome and one of the most popular tourist objects.
For the history the London Tower was a fortress, a palace, storehouse of royal jewelry, an arsenal, a mint, prison, an observatory and even a zoo. It is one of the most popular monuments of London. The Tower nowadays has kept traditional features of the Middle Ages in clothes of the soldiers of protection, the traditional ceremonies which are passing in the lock.
Tower Bridge Tower Bridge (English Tower Bridge) is a leaf bridge in the center of London above the river Thames, near the London Tower. Sometimes it confuse to the London Bridge located above on current. It has been opened in 1894. The Construction designed by Horas Johns, represents a leaf bridge in length of 244 m with two towers put on foundations in height of 65 m. The central prayers between towers, length 61 m, are broken into two elevating covered, which can be lifted on a corner 83 for the miss of courts. Each of more than thousand tones of wings is supplied by a counterbalance minimizing necessary effort and allowing raising the bridge for one minute.
Ludovic XIV nicknamed by King-sun and Magnificent, dissatisfied capital apartments - the Louvre and Tuilry, decided to reconstruct a fatherly hunting lodge in village Versailles and to create there a true miracle of light. Soon on a place of wild woods there was a huge park with uncountable avenues, sculptures, channels, arbours and fountains, and around of a hunting lodge the magnificent palace - Big Trianon was constructed. The Palace Versailles
The mirror gallery which has stretched on 73 meters became the center of this palace. On the one hand seventeen greater high windows have been arranged by this front door, and with another there were huge mirrors in which the sky, ponds, fountains and sculptures of park were reflected. Everything created the illusion of boundless of space, filled the fusions of light. Even the furniture in mirror gallery was unique: tables were cast from silver, orange trees grew in tubs from gold, and in crystal lusters burned set of candles - the world had never seen such beautiful fairy-tale even in dreams. Everything shone, reflected and poured.
Tour d'Eiffel Tour d'Eiffel (French: La Tour Eiffel) - the most recognized architectural sight of Paris, which famous in the world as a symbol of France, named in honour of the designer Gustav Eiffel and being a place of pilgrimage of tourists.
The Site and height of the tower The Tower was built on the Battlefield opposite Iensky bridge. Its height together with the aerial makes 320,75 meters. Over 40 years Tour d'Eiffel was the highest construction in the world (almost in 2 times above the highest buildings in the world of that time the Pyramid of Heops of 137 meters, the Cologne cathedral of 156 meters and Williams cathedral 161 meters) while in 1930 it was surpassed with Chrysler Building in New York.
Mon-Sen-Mishel not always was a place of spiritual rest. In Middle Ages the island became the arena of struggle of kings and dukes replacing each other. In the beginning of XV century, during Centenary war, it has been strengthened and has sustained numerous attacks of EnglishmenIn reign of Napoleon the island renamed into The Island of Freedom, became prison and remained her down to 1863 when has been declared by national property. Today in France only Paris and Versailles can be compared with Mon-Sen-Mishel as one of the basic tourist sights.
From many areas of Paris the most beautiful kind on this church of the last century suddenly opens. From first days of existence Basil Sacre-Coeur involved set of the pilgrims, gone to bow to Sacred Heart of Christ as a symbol all-saving love.
Construction of a tower was conducted in three stages (since the August, 9th 1173 to 1360). The tower is a bell tower of Catholic cathedral Campo dei Miracoli (a field of miracles). The author of the project is unknown. Undoubtedly, the tower is one of the most remarkable bell towers of the Europe. It was considered that the inclination of a tower was a part of the project, but now this version is denied. The tower was projected “vertical”, but “inclination” has started to be felt already during construction.
Tadg-Makhal - an informal symbol of India Flickering white marble of Tadg-Makhal keeps the memory of a big love of the man and the woman. Its symmetry and refinement are similar to the perfect pearl on a background of the azure sky. It is not only the most known mausoleum but also one of the finest constructions on the ground. The mausoleum has been constructed in XVII century by the governor of empire of Great Moguls the Shan-Jakhan in the memory of the favourite wife, whose death threw him into inconsolable grief. Tadg-Makhal is a unsurpassed symbol of the devoted love.
The conclusion But the most important thing to keep these monuments of architecture for descendants that they also could estimate the greatness, magnificence of constructions, to feel spirit of an epoch and to like spirit of this or that country.