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PREPOSITIONS

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Презентация на тему PREPOSITIONS

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Предлоги в английском и русском языках не совпадают в своих значениях. Предло... Предлоги в английском и русском языках не совпадают в своих значениях. Предлоги очень важны для построения и понимания английского предложения, т.к. являются одним из основных средств, указывающих на связь слов в предложении. Английский предлог обычно имеет больше одного значения - один и тот же предлог может быть и предлогом времени, и предлогом места и его значение при этом меняется. Английский предлог, как и в русском языке, обычно стоит перед существительным или местоимением. Но, если существительное или местоимение относиться к глагольным сочетаниям или фразовым глаголам, то предлог может стоять в конце предложения. Английские предлоги могут выражать те значения, которые в русском языке передаются окончаниями косвенных падежей: of – родительным, to – дательным, with, by – творительным
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In – в, внутри, по; через; на On – на, по, при At – в, за, у, рядом; на From ... In – в, внутри, по; через; на On – на, по, при At – в, за, у, рядом; на From – из, с, от Of – из, о; предлог притяжательного падежа For – для, за, в, из, из-за, по причине, ради, в обмен, в течение By – около, к; посредством, через, с помощью; предлог творительного падежа (кем?) With – с, со, предлог творительного падежа (чем?) To – в, во, к (обозначает направление)
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Использование каждого из данных предлогов зависит от размеров упоминаемого ме... Использование каждого из данных предлогов зависит от размеров упоминаемого места: In – местонахождение или в очень большом, или в очень маленьком месте On – в месте средних размеров At – при упоминании «точки» на карте, конкретного адреса или места, в котором одновременно может находиться много людей Предлог Пример in большие размеры места in the country, in the state, in the region, in the region, in the city, in the street, in the north. In the world, in the sky on место средних размеров on(at) the corner of the street, on the shore, on the bank, on the coast, on the river, on the ship, on the train, on the plane, on the way at «точка» на карте at 35, Carnival Drive, at the theatre, at the cinema, at the station, at the shop, at the stop, at the lesson, at school, at university in очень маленькие места in the corner of the room, in the room, in the building, in the park, in the car, in the boat, in bed, in a newspaper, in book, in a photo, in a picture
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PRACTICE Fill in the gaps with the right preposition of place – in, on, at. 1... PRACTICE Fill in the gaps with the right preposition of place – in, on, at. 1. Her brother lives ___ a small town ___ the south coast of Spain. 2. The sports results are ___ the back page of the paper. 3. They got married ___ Birmingham. 4. Vienna is ___ the river Danube. 5. His office is ___ the fifth floor. 6. Tom is sitting ___ an armchair. 7. The picture is ___ the wall. 8. We meet ___ the station at 7pm. 9. She was ill and stayed ___ bed. 10.Are there any good films ___ the cinema this week? 11. We went to see a play ___ the National Theatre. 12. She is still ___ hospital and recovers from her holiday. 13. We were ___ sea for ten weeks. 14. Because of delay we had to wait for three hours ___ the airport. 15. I didn’t see her ___ party.
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KEYS 1. Her brother lives in a small town on the south coast of Spain. 2. The... KEYS 1. Her brother lives in a small town on the south coast of Spain. 2. The sports results are on the back page of the paper. 3. They got married in Birmingham. 4. Vienna is on the river Danube. 5. His office is on the fifth floor. 6. Tom is sitting in an armchair. 7. The picture is on the wall. 8. We meet at the station at 7pm. 9. She was ill and stayed in bed. 10.Are there any good films in he cinema this week? 11. We went to see a play at the National Theatre. 12. She is still in hospital and recovers from her holiday. 13. We were at sea for ten weeks. 14. Because of delay we had to wait for three hours at the airport. 15. I didn’t see her at party.
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Важно помнить, что ряд словосочетаний , в отличие от русского языка, не требу... Важно помнить, что ряд словосочетаний , в отличие от русского языка, не требуют употребления предлога: this year/month /week – в этом году/месяце, на этой неделе; - last year /month/ week – в прошлом году, месяце, на прошлой неделе; next year/month/week – в следующем году/ месяце, на следующей неделе; every year/month/week – каждый год/месяц/неделю Предлог Пример at «точка» на циферблате часов at 6 o’clock, at midnight, at noon, at sunrise Ряд конструкций: at first - сначала, at last - наконец, at once - сразу, at our approach – при нашем приближении on день, день недели, дата on Thursday, on the 16th of July on holiday, on my day off, on the week day in год , месяц, период суток, время года in 2009, in February, in the afternoon, in spring Может иметь значение «через»: in two hours, in a year, in a few minutes В конструкциях In time – пришедший успел и имеет в запасе время до начала события, к которому спешил; On time – пришедший явился точно в срок – не поздно и не рано
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PRACTICE Fill in the gaps with the right preposition of time where necessary ... PRACTICE Fill in the gaps with the right preposition of time where necessary – in, on, at. 1. My cousin often visits me ___ her holidays. 2.___ Sunday I usually get up ___ nine am. 3. My brother’s birthday is ___ the thirteenth of February. 4. Lev Tolstoy liked to get up ___ sunrise. 5. I’m leaving ___ next Sunday ___ noon. 6. We used to meet ___ our days off. 7. She said she would return ___ a few minutes. 8. Mr. Smith is quite punctual, he always arrives ___ time. 9. I was looking for my keys and ___ last found them in my purse. 10. We had a lot to do and went to bed quite late ___ night. 11. George isn’t here ___ the moment. 12. Will you be at home ___ this evening? 13. I’m going out. I’ll be back ___ an hour. 14. Where will you be ___ Christmas ___ this year? 15. Kevin phoned me ___ every Saturday. 16. Emma left school ten years ago, ___ 1999.
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KEYS 1. My cousin often visits me on her holidays. 2. On Sunday I usually get... KEYS 1. My cousin often visits me on her holidays. 2. On Sunday I usually get up at nine am. 3. My brother’s birthday is on the thirteenth of February. 4. Lev Tolstoy liked to get up at sunrise. 5. I’m leaving next Sunday at noon. 6. We used to meet on our days off. 7. She said she would return in a few minutes. 8. Mr. Smith is quite punctual, he always arrives on time. 9. I was looking for my keys and at last found them in my purse. 10. We had a lot to do and went to bed quite late at night. 11. George isn’t here at he moment. 12. Will you be at home this evening? 13. I’m going out. I’ll be back in an hour. 14. Where will you be at Christmas this year? 15. Kevin phoned me every Saturday. 16. Emma left school ten years ago, in 1999.
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For – в течение к-л. периода времени During – в течение, в продолжение While ... For – в течение к-л. периода времени During – в течение, в продолжение While – пока, в то время, как Before - до After - после Предлог for часто входит в состав фразовых глаголов или предложных конструкций: look for – искать, wait for – ждать, blame smb. for – стыдить к-л. за, thank smb. for – благодарить к-л. за, praise smb. for - хвалить к-л. за, be responsible for – отвечать за Предлог Пример for + период времени в течение for three months, for ten years, for five minutes during + существительное в течение during our voyage, during the war, during the film while + глагол пока while we were eating, while they were talking before/after + глагол с окончанием –ing до/после before the film, after the film, before eating breakfast, after reading the newspaper
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PRACTICE Fill in the gaps with the right preposition of time – for, during, w... PRACTICE Fill in the gaps with the right preposition of time – for, during, while, before, after. 1. We didn’t speak ___ we were eating. 2. We didn’t speak ___ the meal. 3. Mike and Nell played tennis ___ three hours. 4. ___ doing the shopping, they went home. 5. ___ eating the apple, I washed it carefully. 6. George phoned ___ you were out. 7. Everybody was nervous ___ the exam. 8. I always have breakfast ___ going to school. 9. Sally wrote a lot of letters ___ she was on holiday. 10. Yesterday evening I watched TV ___ two hours. 11. Do you ever watch TV ___ you are having dinner? 12. Little Mike fell out of bed ___ he was sleeping. 13. Kate stayed in Rome ___ five days. 14. The student looked very bored ___ the lesson. 15. I don’t usually watch TV ___ the day. 16. Henry started work ___ reading the newspaper.
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KEYS 1. We didn’t speak while we were eating. 2. We didn’t speak during the m... KEYS 1. We didn’t speak while we were eating. 2. We didn’t speak during the meal. 3. Mike and Nell played tennis for three hours. 4. After doing the shopping, they went home. 5. Before eating the apple, I washed it carefully. 6. George phoned while you were out. 7. Everybody was nervous before the exam. 8. I always have breakfast before going to school. 9. Sally wrote a lot of letters while she was on holiday. 10. Yesterday evening I watched TV for two hours. 11. Do you ever watch TV while you are having dinner? 12. Little Mike fell out of bed while he was sleeping. 13. Kate stayed in Rome for five days. 14. The student looked very bored during the lesson. 15. I don’t usually watch TV during the day. 16. Henry started work after reading the newspaper.
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From...to… = From…till… - с… до… Until = till – до какого-либо периода, до ка... From...to… = From…till… - с… до… Until = till – до какого-либо периода, до какого-либо времени Since – с какого-либо времени в прошлом до настоящего момента Предлог Пример from...to… с... до… from Tuesday to Sunday, from early morning till late evening, from 1999 to 2009 until до until Saturday, until December, until 6 o’clock, till late at night, till I come back since с каких-либо пор since I arrived, since Monday, since 1987, since 2.30
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PRACTICE Fill in the gaps with the right preposition of time – until, since, ... PRACTICE Fill in the gaps with the right preposition of time – until, since, from…to…, for. 1. Mr and Mrs Kelly have been married ___ 1978. 2. I was tired this morning. I stayed in bed ___ 10 am. 3. I work ____ Monday___ Saturday. 4. We waited for Sue ___ half an hour but she didn’t come. 5. “Have you just arrived?” – “No, I’ve been here ___ half past seven.” 6. David and Joe are good friends. They have known each other ___ ten years. 7. I’m tired. I’m going to lie down ___ a few minutes. 8. Don’t open the door of the train ___ the train stops. 9. This is my house. I’ve lived here ___ I was 7 years old. 10. Jack has gone away. He’ll be away ___ Wednesday. 11. Next week I’m going to London ___ a fortnight. 12. I usually finish work at 5.30, but sometimes I work __ 6. 13. “How long have you known Ann?” – “___ we were at school together.” 14. Where have you been? I’ve been waiting for you ___ twenty minutes.
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KEYS 1. Mr and Mrs Kelly have been married since 1978. 2. I was tired this mo... KEYS 1. Mr and Mrs Kelly have been married since 1978. 2. I was tired this morning. I stayed in bed until 10 am. 3. I work from Monday to Saturday. 4. We waited for Sue for half an hour but she didn’t come. 5. “Have you just arrived?” – “No, I’ve been here since half past seven.” 6. David and Joe are good friends. They have known each other for ten years. 7. I’m tired. I’m going to lie down for a few minutes. 8. Don’t open the door of the train until the train stops. 9. This is my house. I’ve lived here since I was 7 years old. 10. Jack has gone away. He’ll be away until Wednesday. 11. Next week I’m going to London for a fortnight. 12. I usually finish work at 5.30, but sometimes I work until 6. 13. “How long have you known Ann?” – “Since we were at school together.” 14. Where have you been? I’ve been waiting for you for twenty minutes.
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Литература: Vince M., Language practice (Elementary, Intermediate, First Cert... Литература: Vince M., Language practice (Elementary, Intermediate, First Certificate Star), Macmillan, 2007-2009 Murphy R., English in Use (Elementary, Intermediate), Cambridge University Press, 2003, 1997 Дроздова Т., Маилова В., English Grammar, СПб, Триада, 1997 Кузьменкова Ю.Б., Жаворонкова А.Р., Извольская И.В., Revising, Reading and Reasoning, Титул, 2003 Анимация: http://img1.liveinternet.ru/images/attach/c/2//64/257/64257147_pruygayuschiy_kolobok.gif http://thumbnail062.mylivepage.com/chunk62/1745963/1450/small_Бегущий%20%3D)).gif.jpg
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