«Queen of England and Ireland Elizabeth I» Проект ученика 6/2 класса школы № 347 Афанасьева Дмитрия
Цель работы: углубление знаний о стране изучаемого языка и её прошлом; установление межпредметных связей (история - английский язык - мировая художественная культура); развитие навыков самостоятельной работы с большими объемами информации.
«Under her wing she grew the nation…», - T. Dekker, English Elizabethian dramatist and pamphletist
Elisabeth I was born on 7th September in 1533. Her father was Henry VIII, mother - Anna Boleyn Elisabeth was the princess of Wales.
Henry VIII had 6 wives. The second wife was Anna Boleyn. She was executed two years and eight months later the birth of Elizabeth
Old castle in Hatfield After the death of her mother Elizabeth was declared illegitimate and deprived of the title of princess. She endured terrible years in Hatfield. She was 15 years old when her father died.
When Elisabeth was 10, she spoke French, Latin, Italian, Greek, Spanish, played the lute and danced perfectly.
Mary Tudor (1553-1558) «Bloody» The eldest daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, the wife of the future king of Spain Phillip II: - restored Catholicism and began to pursue leaders of Reformation; began the war with France, but in 1558 the French armies seized a city of Calais – the last possession of England on the continent. In 1558 she fell ill. On 6 November Mary recognised Elizabeth as her heir.
Elisabeth came to London on 28 November 1558. She was crowned on 15 January 1559.
Queen Elizabeth I said: «I know I have the body of a week and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a King»
«39 points of the Creed» (1571) Elizabeth I reestablished the Church of England’s independence from Rome. The Scriptus – a source of the faith; Christening; Indulgence, honoring of icons; The clergy submitted only to the king; “I don’t want to open the windows into the human souls” Elizabeth I declared soon after her coronation
Catholicism in England – persecuted faith – convenient cover for external enemies. Phillip II applying for the English throne, together with the Pope tried to organize a warfare between the Catholic states of Europe and the queen-heretic. They supported the Scottish queen Mary Stewart applying for the English throne.
War with Scotland In 1560 there was a revolt in Scotland The french king supported it. On 6 July in Edinburgh the peace treaty was signed. In 1561 Mary Stuart was crowned in Edinburgh.
Mary Stuart Scotish (1560-1567) Mary Stuart's accension to the throne was very dangerous for Elizabeth – the Scottish queen had a claim to the English throne. 1567 – the revolt of the Scottish Calvinists against Mary Stuart; In February of 1587 – Mary Stuart was accused of the plot; On 8 February 1587 she was decapitated
Her favourite symbol was a pelican. According to the legend the pelican fed its chicks with its own meat. It personified Queen’s care about her people. «Kind queen Bess» Elizabeth made the image of the queen who was married to the nation and had the Divine aegis supplying the prosperity of England. Elizabeth always accentuated that all her activity was directed to the prosperity of the country and that’s why she gave away her personal hapyness.
Russian tsar Ivan the Terrible, the Spanish king Phillip II, the French prince François Anzhujsky and others proposed to Elizabeth I to marry, but she refused.
Frensis Drake – gentleman, pirate, traveller “Frensis Drake, I have come to take your head!” – Elizabeth's voice sounded severely, and Drake closed his eyes. But the blade stopped close to the neck of the pirate. The sword touched his shoulder, and during the following instant Drake was dubbed.
War between England and Spain Englishmen didn't have any chance to win. Drake's big pirate experience, ship maneuverability, strategic miscalculations of Spaniards, unity of actions of English ships helped to win the fierce battle.
«Undefeated Armada» - Summer 1588 – the Spanish fleet reached Plymouth; - July, 28th 1588 – the battle apprx. Calais. «The invincible armada» was defeated. Returning to Scotland and Ireland – complete defeat. Losses: Spain – 69 ships; England – 0. Value: Spain lost her power at sea. England became «sea mistress».
SPANISH ARMADA - Spain – 132 ships; England – 197 ships Spain: Capture of the Spanish group in Dunkirk ; Disembarkation in the mouth of the Thames, near London; Relience on support of English Catholics. England: Evasion of the general sea battle, but some active attacks.
Jacov VI (I) Stewart (1603-1625) After Mary Stuart’s execution Elizabeth I concluded the alliance with Jacob VI – it was obliged not to support Spain, not to help the Scottish and Irish Catholics In 1603 after Elizabeth's death Jacob VI became the king of England, and Scotland was attached to England.
Foreign relations of Elizabeth I Struggle for Scotland War with Spain Struggle for colonies 1. Mary Stuart’s execution 2. Treaty with Jacob Stuart. 3. 1603 – attachment of Scotland to England Defeat of the Spanish Armada. 2. Spain lost her power at sea. 3. Colonial expansion 1. War in Ireland. 2. Assimilation of Northern America, Chile, Peru 3. Removal of black slaves from Africa 4. Regular trade with India Birth of Great Britain – one of the greatest empire, sea mistress, proprietress of the half of the world.
William Shakespeare (1564-1616) William Shakespeare was born in Stratford on 23 April 1564. In 1587 he went to London. Shakespeare wrote plays and acted in Globe Theatre. William Shakespeare stopped writing in 1613 and came back to Stratford. In 1616 Shakespeare died.
Last years of the queen The end of the reign of Elizabeth I was difficult. «I have a body of the weak and sick woman, but a heart of the king, and besides – the king of England». Elizabeth became closed and suspicious. She was afraid of plots and murderers. Elizabeth Tudor died on March, 23rd, 1603 Tudor dynasty stopped. «Queen Elizabeth. Time and death». 1600 «All the mechanism of my rule is in breaking » - from the letter of Elizabeth I to Henry IV, the King of France.
Елизавета в оценках современников и потомков Канцлер Англии и философ Френсис Бэкон: «Женское правление было редкостью во все времена; удачное правление еще большей редкостью; удачное и то же время долгое правление – это уникальное явление». Госсекретарь королевы Роберт Сесил: «Она, пожалуй, была больше, чем мужчина, но меньше, чем женщина». Испанский посол граф Ферия: «Она очень привязана к своему народу и твердо уверена, что он на ее стороне, что и на самом деле так. Она конечно же великая королева, и если бы только она была католичкой, мы бы ее очень любили». Папа Сикст V: «Только посмотрите, как она управляет! Она всего лишь женщина…, но она заставляет Испанию, Францию, Империю – всех бояться себя».
Портрет – загадка для потомков
Материалы, использованные в работе: Еженедельное издание «100 человек, которые изменили ход истории» №88, 2009г. Б.Т. Грибанов «Елизавета I, королева Англии» Москва, «Мир книги», 2010г. Журнал «Всемирный следопыт» №6 за 2007г., №1 за 2008г., №3 за 2009г. http://elite-home.narod.ru/polit2.htm http://www.hrono.info/biograf/bio_ye/elizoveta1tyudor.php http://manger.ru/vsem/eliz.htm http://blogs.mail.ru/mail/tota2001/388486a0908e6ee0.html