ЖАНРЫ ПИСЬМЕННОЙ РЕЧИ НА УРОКАХ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА WRITING Автор презентации учитель английского языка ВОЛЧЕНКОВА Г.И.
АКАДЕМИЧЕСКОЕ ПИСЬМО: ** доклад (report) ** эссе (essay) ** рецензия (review) ПРАГМАТИЧЕСКОЕ ПИСЬМО: ** письмо личного характера (friendly letter) ТВОРЧЕСКОЕ ПИСЬМО: ** статья (article) ** рассказ (story)
REPORT A report is a document which presents specific, focused content - often the result of an experiment, investigation, or inquiry - to a specific audience. The audience may be public or private, an individual or the public in general. Reports are used in government, business, education, and science. They often use persuasive elements, such as graphics, images, or specialized vocabulary in order to persuade that specific audience to undertake an action. Your report must include: ** formal language ** correct grammar and spelling ** clear headings for each paragraph ** suitable expressions that are correct in the context Your report must NOT include: ** informal language ** contractions ** many phrasal verbs ** spelling and grammatical errors How to write a report Report Plan: 1. Initial information 2. Introduction 3. Body: Paragraph 2 Heading Paragraph 3 Heading Paragraph 4 Heading 4.Conclusion/Recommendations Begin with some initial information: To: From: Subject: or Re: Write an introduction (what the report is about). Write a conclusion To sum up,... To conclude, ... In conclusion,... Thus,... Finally,... I would like to recommend/suggest... You may wish to consider...
ESSAY An essay is a piece of writing, which clearly expresses the author's personal opinion about a definite subject of general interest. Essays are non-fictional but often subjective. They can also include narrative . The main goal of an essay is to shape the reader's opinion. The basic features of an essay are brevity, clarity of the message, subjectivity, appeal to a wide audience and strong impact. THERE ARE DIFFERENT TYPES OF ESSAYS: ** descriptive essays ** comparative essays ** persuasive essays ** opinion essay ** argumentative essays ** critical essays ** analytical essays, and so on Your essay must include: - formal language - active verbs - correct grammar and spelling Your essay must NOT include: - contractions or abbreviations - simplistic vocabulary - slang expressions - spelling and grammatical errors Descriptive essay 1. Describing People Structure A descriptive essay about a person should consist of: introduction in which you give general information about the person, saying when, where and how you first met him; b) a main body in which you describe his physical appearance, personal qualities and hobbies/interests. (You start a new paragraph for each topic); c) a conclusion in which you write your comments and/or feelings about the person. Opinion Essay (type 1) In an opinion essay express your personal opinion and use "I statements". It is not necessary to use arguments "for" and "against". You can describe only positive or only negative aspects of the theme.
REVIEW FILM A film review is the analysis and evaluation of a movie. The plot summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of any film review can have an important impact on whether people decide to see a film. Remember that a good review is not just a summary of a movie, but a critical analysis that examines why and how a movie works and whether the film succeeds in its presentation. BOOK REVIEW A book review is a form of literary criticism in which a book is analyzed based on content, style, and merit. Its length may vary from a single paragraph to a substantial essay. Such a review often contains evaluations of the book on the basis of personal taste.
FRIENDLY LETTER HOW TO WRITE A FRIENDLY LETTER ** Write naturally, as if you were talking. ** Write about what the other person will want to know. ** If you are replying to a letter written to you, begin by answering any questions that were asked or by making comments about what was written. Be appreciative. ** Make your letter neat and legible. Write with a pen (not a pencil), or use a typewriter. Follow the standard form for writing friendly letters. London 25/03/11 Dear Lois, What a great sister you are! With all you have to do at college, you still found time to write to me. Your job at the restaurant sounds like hard work. Your story of how you knocked the peas and catsup over the hamburgers was wonderful. Did your customers really insist on eating them that way? Beth and I combined those ingredients for lunch. We called them "Hamburgers a la Lois." Your issues of Science Magazine are still being delivered here. I read them first before sending them to you. Maybe reading them will help my grades in science. Tippy had her puppies - eight of them. I am enclosing a picture. Did you know that Tippy still sleeps in your room? You are probably taking your exams right now. Good luck, Lois; I know that you will do well. Love, Mark
ARTICLE An article is a written, non-fiction essay. Articles usually appear in magazines, newspapers, academic journals, or the Internet. Writing articles often requires a session of note taking and research. Your article should be interesting and easy to read. It should also have absorbing content and a title that catches the reader's attention. YOUR ARTICLE MUST INCLUDE: ** informal style ** correct grammar and spelling ** an interesting heading YOUR ARTICLE MUST NOT INCLUDE: ** unnecessary or contradictory information ** jargon or slang **grammatical or spelling errors Write an introduction (what you are going to tell your readers about). Try to make your reader interested in your article from the very beginning. ** Have you ever...? ** Do you know that...? ** Have you ever thought of...? Write the body of your article. Divide it into paragraphs. Give examples and express your opinion to catch your reader's attention. If you are describing some event, make sure your article answers five questions: WHY, WHERE, WHEN, WHAT and HOW. Take... for example...To my mind,... To my point of view,...I believe that... As far as I m concerned,... As I see it,... Write a conclusion. Conclusions sometimes include your suggestions and recommendations too. Let's... Try... Why not...?
SHORT STORY Short story is a work of fiction that is usually written in prose, often in narrative format. Remember that the main events of a short story should occur in a relatively short period of time. A typical short story has exposition (the introduction of setting, situation and main characters), complication (the event that introduces the conflict), rising action (events leading to the turning point/climax), climax (when the rising action of the story reaches the peak), and resolution (the point when the conflict is resolved). YOUR STORY MUST INCLUDE: ** a more formal style (apart from direct speech) ** action verbs and active voice ** interesting vocabulary ** correct grammar and spelling YOUR STORY MUST NOT INCLUDE: ** many passive verb forms ** grammatical or spelling errors FACE THE FUTURE