There are countable and uncountable nouns. Countable a chair a question an engineer a bus Uncountable mater milk freedom friendship
The countable noun is used in the form of the singular and the plural. The uncountable nouns is used only in the form of singular.
Some nouns form the plural by changing the root vowel.
The plural of the nouns sheep, deer, swine and fish is identical with the singular.
Some nouns borrowed from Latin and Greek keep the plural form of the language from which they have been borrowed. A phenomenon [finominen]-phenomena [finimine]явище a crisis [ kraisis ]-crises[kraisiz] a radius [reidjes]-radii [reidiai]
If the singular ends in – th [θ] preceded by a long vowel or a diphthong, in the plural the final [θ] is changed into [ ʆ] after which the ending –s is pronounced [z]. A path [pa:θ]- paths [pa:ʆz]
Some nouns ending in – o take –es. f.e Tomato- tomatoes But: radio-radios, piano- pianos, photo- photos, video- videos.
Repeat the rule!
Plurals Spelling Rules To form plural nouns we usually add -s to the noun. one pen - two pens Nouns ending in -s, -ss, -ch, -x or -o take -es in the plural. bus - buses, glass - glasses, brush - brushes, watch - watches, fox - foxes, tomato - tomatoes However, some nouns ending in - o take only –s . radio - radios, piano - pianos, studio - studios , video - videos kilo - kilos Nouns ending in a vowel + y take -s in the plural. boy - boys Nouns ending in a consonant + y drop the -y and take -ies in the plural. party - parties , baby - babies Most nouns ending in -f or -fe, drop the -f or -fe and take -ves in the plural. knife - knives , wolf - wolves However, some nouns ending in -f or -fe take only -s. roof - roofs, cliff - cliffs, giraffe - giraffes
Irregular Plurals Some nouns do not form their plural according to the about rules. They either have a different form or the same form as in the singular. These are:
Singular Plural child man women foot tooth goose mouse sheep ox deer children men women feet teeth geese mice sheep Oxen deer
Countable / Uncountable Nouns Countable nouns are nouns which we can count. They have singular and plural forms. One egg, two eggs, three eggs
Uncountable nouns are nouns which we cannot count. Uncountable nouns have only singular forms. These nouns include: Food: cheese, butter, salt, pepper, bread, spaghetti, etc Liquid: coffee, milk, water, tea, lemonade, etc
We can use the following nouns before uncountable nouns to show quantity:
a bottle → a bottle of coke a glass → a glass of water a carton → a carton of milk a cup → a cup of coffee a bowl → a bowl of rice a packet → a packet of spaghetti a slice → a slice of cheese a loaf → a loaf of bread a kilo → a kilo of sugar a bar → a bar of chocolate