Ученица 10 «б» класса МОУ СОШ №3 Города Петровска Саратовской области Просвирнина Анастасия Преподаватель: Трапезников А.Ф.
The Kremlin is the symbol of the first Russian and later Soviet power and authority. Its crenellated red brick walls and 20 towers were built at the end of the 15th century, when a host of Italian builders arrived in Moscow at the invitation of Ivan III the Great. Of the most important towers, the Spasskaya Tower leading to Red Square was built in 1491 by Pietro Solario, who designed most of the main towers; its belfry was added in 1624-25. The chimes of its clock are broadcasted by radio as a time signal to the whole nation. Also on the Red Square front is the Nikolskaya Tower, built originally in 1491 and rebuilt in 1806. The two other principal gate towers–the Troitskaya Tower, with a bridge and outer barbican (the Kutafya Tower), and the Borovitskaya Tower–lie on the western wall.
Around the central Sobornaya Ploshchad are grouped three magnificent cathedrals, superb examples of Russian church architecture at its height in the late 15th and early 16th centuries pure. The Orthodox metropolitans and patriarchs of the 14th to the 18th century are buried there. The oldest part of Moscow is the Kremlin. This is the main tourist attraction in Moscow. The word "Kremlin" means "fortress". And the Moscow Kremlin used to be a fortress. In 1156 a small settlement of Moscow was surrounded by a wooden wall and became a Kremlin. The town and the Kremlin were burnt in 1237, but they were rebuilt. In 14th century Prince Dmitry Donskoy built a white stone wall around the Kremlin, and in the 15th century the Kremlin was surrounded by a new red-brick wall. Twenty towers of the Kremlin wall were constructed in the end of the 17th century.
Across the square is the Cathedral of the Blagoveshchensky Sobor, which is built in 1484-89 by craftsmen from Pskov; though burned in 1547, it was rebuilted in 1562-64. Its cluster of chapels is topped by golden roofs and domes. Inside are a number of early 15th-century icons attributed to Theophanes the Greek and to Andrey Rublyov, who are considered by many to be the greatest of all Russian icon painters.
The third cathedral, the Arkhangelsky, was rebuilted in 1505-08; in it are buried the princes of Moscow and tsars of Russia (except Boris Godunov) up to the founding of St. Petersburg. Just off the square stands the splendid, soaring white bell tower of Ivan the Great; built in the 16th century and damaged in 1812, it was restored a few years later.
On the west of Cathedral Square there is a group of palaces of various periods; the Granovitaya Palata so called from the exterior finish of faceted, whited stone squares which was built in 1487-91. Behind it is the Terem Palace of 1635-36, which incorporates several older churches, including the Voskreseniye Lazarya, dating from 1393. At its foot is the enormous there is Tsar-Kolokol, casted in 1733-35, which has never rung. Nearby is the Tsar-Pushka, there is cast in 1586. Beside, there are located the mid-17th-century Sobor Dvenadtsati Apostolov and the adjoining Patriarchal Palace.
Both became part of the Kremlin Great Palace, built as a royal residence in 1838-49 and formerly used for sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.; its long, yellow-washed facade dominates the riverfront. It is connected to the Oruzheynaya Palata, was built in 1844-51 and now it is the Armoury Museum, housing a large collection of treasures of the tsars.
Along the northeast wall of the Kremlin, there is the Arsenal (1702-36), the former Senate building (1776-88), and the School for Red Commanders (1932-34). The only other Soviet-period building within the Kremlin is the Palace of Congresses (1960-61), with a vast auditorium used for political mitings and as a theatre.
I think that the Kremlin walls is one of the most striking and beautiful architectural ensembles in the world: a combination of churches and palaces, which are open to the public and are among the city’s most popular tourist attractions, and the highest offices of the state, which are surrounded by strict security. I am proud of the Kremlin and my motherland!